Saturday, March 17, 2012



In Broad Outline
In order to achieve this objective, very much like, we need to feed the engine three things:
1. Air - this is fed in as normal through the existing air filter.
2. Hydroxy gas
3. A mist of very small water droplets, sometimes called "cold water  fog". Also, we need to make two adjustments to the engine:
1. The spark timing needs to be retarded by about eleven degrees.
2. If there is a "waste" spark, then that needs to be eliminated.
To summarise then, a good deal of work needs to be done to achieve this  effect:
1. An electrolyser needs to be built or bought, although the required  gas production rate is not particularly high.
2. A generator of cold water fog needs to be made or bought.
3. Pipes need to be installed to carry these two items into the engine.
4. The engine timing needs to be retarded.
5. Any waste spark needs to be suppressed.
6. Water tanks are needed for the cold water fog and to keep the  electrolyser topped up.
7. Ideally, some form of automatic water refill for  water tanks  should be provided so that the generator can
run for long periods unattended.

A Generalized overall sketch looks like this omitting the hydroxy gas, safety equipment, Electrical safety equipment, the starting battery and the automated water supply details:

The hydroxy gas is fed into the air system after the air filter, the  cold water fog comprised of a very large number of very tiny droplets, is also fed into this same area.

Creating the cold water fog
There are three different ways to generate the spray of very fine water  droplets which are a key feature of the success of this way of running the engine. One way is to use a Venturi tube, which, while it sounds like an impressive device, is actually very simple in construction:

It is just a pipe which tapers to a point and which has a very small nozzle. As the engine draws in the air/hydroxy mix on it's intake stroke, the mixture rushes past the nozzle of the Venturi tube. This creates an area of lower pressure outside the nozzle and causes water to exit through the nozzle in a spray of very fine droplets. Some perfume spray bottles use this method as it is both cheap and effective. An alternative method of making the cold water fog is to use one or more "pond foggers". These are small ultrasonic devices which are  maintained at the optimum operating depth in the water by a float. They  produce large amounts of cold water fog which can be fed into the  engine like this:

A third method is to use a small carburettor of the type used with  model aircraft. This does the same job as a regular engine carburettor, feeding a spray of tiny water droplets into the engine air intake. The physical arrangement of this option depends on the construction of the air filter of the generator being modified. with a lower grade of HHO which has some water vapour mixed in with it, it is possible to have a gas reservoir with pressure in it.

Some Safety Features
Up to this point, the electrolyser has been shown in bare outline. In  practice, it is essential that some safety features are incorporated as shown here:

The Reason for Changing the Timing
The fuels used with most internal combustion engines are either petrol (gasoline) or diesel. If you are not interested in chemistry, then you are probably not aware of the structure of these fuels. These fuels are called "hydrocarbons" because they are composed of hydrogen and carbon. Carbon has four bonds and so a carbon atom can link to four other atoms to form a molecule. Petrol is a long chain molecule with anything from seven to nine carbon atoms in a chain:

Diesel has the same structure but with eleven to eighteen carbon atoms in a chain. In a petrol engine, a fine spray of petrol is fed into each cylinder during the intake stroke. Ideally, the fuel should be in vapour form but this is not popular with the oil companies because doing that can give vehicle performances in the 100 to 300 mpg range and that would cut the profits from oil sales.  The petrol in the cylinder is compressed during the compression stroke and that reduces its volume and raises its temperature substantially. The air/fuel mix is then hit with a powerful spark and that provides enough energy to start a chemical reaction between the fuel and the  air. Because the hydrocarbon chain is such a large molecule, it takes a moment for that chain to break up before the individual atoms combine with the oxygen in the air. The main engine power is produced by the  hydrogen atoms combining with oxygen, as that reaction produces a large amount of heat. The carbon atoms are not particularly helpful, forming carbon deposits inside the engine, not to mention some carbon monoxide (CO) and some carbon dioxide (CO2) as well. The key factor here is the slight delay between the spark and the combustion of the fuel. The combustion needs to happen a few degrees after Top Dead  Centre when the piston is about to start its downward movement in the power stroke. Because of the delay caused by the hydrocarbon chain breaking down, the spark occurs a few degrees before Top Dead Centre:

If you were to replace the petrol vapour with hydroxy gas, then there would be a major problem. This is because hydroxy gas has very small molecule sizes which do not need any kind of breaking down and which  burn instantly with explosive force. The result would be an explosion which occurs far too soon and which opposes the movement of the rising piston as shown here:

The forces imposed on the piston's connecting rod would be so high that  it would be quite liable to break and cause additional engine damage. In the case of our electrical generator, we will not be feeding it a mix of air and hydroxy gas, but instead, a mix of air, hydroxy gas and cold water fog. This delays the combustion of the hydroxy gas by a small amount, but it is still important to have the spark occur after Top Dead Centre, so the ignition of the generator needs to be retarded by eleven degrees. Engine design varies considerably in ways which are not obvious to a  quick glance at the engine. The timing of the valves is a big factor here. In the smallest and cheapest engines, the engine design is simplified by not having the spark timing taken off the cam-shaft. Instead, production costs are cut by taking the spark timing off the output shaft. This produces a spark on every revolution of the engine. But, if it is a four-stroke engine, the spark should only occur on the power stroke which is every second revolution of the output shaft. If the fuel is petrol, then this does not matter as the extra spark will occur near the end of the exhaust stroke when only burnt gases are present in the cylinder. Some people are concerned when they  think of hydroxy gas burning and producing water inside the engine. They think of hydrogen embrittlement and rusting. However, because of  the nature of the hydrocarbon fuel already being used, the engine runs  primarily on hydrogen anyway and it always has produced water. The
water is in the form of very hot vapour or steam and the engine heat  dries it out when the engine is stopped. Hydrogen embrittlement does not occur as a result of using a hydroxy gas booster. Anyway, if we were to delay the spark until after Top Dead Centre as we must, then the situation is quite different as the waste spark will also be delayed by the same amount. With most engines, at this point in time the exhaust valve will have closed and the intake valve opened. Our very flammable gas mix will be being fed into the engine on it's intake  stroke. This means that our gas supply system is openly connected to the cylinder through the open intake valve, and so, the waste spark  would ignite our gas supply system (as far as the bubbler which would
smother the flashback). The situation is shown here:

we definitely do not want that to happen, so it is very important that we suppress that additional "waste" spark. So, this leaves us with two engine adjustments: timing delay and waste spark elimination. There are  various ways in which these can be done and as each engine design is  different, it is difficult to cover every possibility. However, there is a technique which can be used with many engines and which deals with both issues at the same time.Most engines of this type are four-stroke engines with intake and exhaust valves, perhaps something like this:

The intake valve (shown on the right in this illustration) is pushed  down by a cam shaft, compressing the spring and opening the inlet port. The exact arrangement will be different from one engine design to the next. What is fixed is the movement of the valve itself and that movement only takes place every second revolution. There are various ways of using those movement to eliminate the waste spark and retard the timing. If a switch were mounted so that it opens when the intake valve opens and closes when the intake valve closes, then the switch
closure shows when the piston starts upwards on its compression stroke  and a simple electronic circuit can then give an adjustable delay  before firing the coil which produces the spark. This, of course, involves disconnecting the original electrical circuit so that no waste  spark is generated. The current flowing through the switch contacts can be arranged to be so low that there will be no sparking at the contacts when the circuit is broken again. The switch positioning might be like this:

An alternative is to attach a strong permanent magnet to the rocker  arm, using epoxy resin, and then position a solid state "Hall-effect" sensor so that it triggers the delay before the spark is generated.
If the engine did not have a waste spark, then in theory, the timing  mechanism of the engine could be used to retard the spark. However, in practice, the timing mechanism is almost never capable of retarding the spark to the position that is needed for running without fossil fuel, and so, some kind of delay circuit will be needed anyway. The sort of delay circuit needed is called a "monostable" as it has only one stable state. A basic circuit of that type is:

We can use two of these circuits, the first to give the adjustable delay and the second to give a brief pulse to the ignition circuit to generate the spark:

Making the hydroxy gas When the generator is running, we have a ready supply of electrical  energy, coming from a piece of equipment which has been specifically designed to supply large quantities of electricity for any required application. We are not dealing with the spare capacity of some low-grade alternator in a car, but we have substantial electrical power available. An Electrolyser will be needed, and since there is a steady supply of electricity,there is no problem. It is unlikely that an excessive amount of power would be needed. Another convenient factor is that this is a stationary application, so the size and weight of the electrolyser is not at all important, and this gives us further flexibility in our choices of dimensions. As this is an application where it is highly likely that the  electrolyser will be operated for long periods unattended,an automated water supply system should be provided. The water pump itself can be an ordinary windscreen-washer pump, and we need some form of switch which operates on the electrolyte level inside the electrolyser. It is sufficient to sense the level in just one of  the cells inside the electrolyser as the water usage will be pretty much the same in every cell. If you make the electrolyser in a suitable size or shape, then a simple off-the-shelf miniature float switch can be used. If you prefer, an electronic level sensor can be operated, using two bolts through the side of the electrolyser as the level sensor. A suitable circuit for this simple switching task could be:

When the electrolyte level inside the electrolyser is in contact with  the upper bolt head, the circuit is switched off and the water pump is  powered down. The electrolyte has a low resistance to current flow, and so it connects the 4.7K resistor through to the base of the BC109 Darlington pair. This keeps the two transistors switched fully on which keeps the 8.2K resistor connection well below the 0.7 volts needed to switch the ZTX6533 transistor on. If  you are concerned about the ZTX6533 transistor being partially on, then resistor "R" could be added, although the prototype did not need one. The value would be about 2K. When the electrolyte level falls below the upper bolt head, the first two transistors switch off, and the ZTX6533 transistor is then powered fully on by the 4.7K resistor and the 8.2K resistor in series, providing the 150 mA needed for the relay to be switched fully on. The circuit draws about 5 mA in it's standby state. The numbers on the relay symbol correspond to the numbers on a typical automotive 12 volt relay. Using two BC109 transistors as the front end allows this circuit to be used with tap water if you wish. However, the water-level control for the water supply to the pond fogger or Venturi tube misting device does not need any form of fancy mechanism. The standard ballcock valve mechanism which is used with toilets is quite adequate, especially if a floating pond fogger is being used as it maintains its own optimum depth below the surface and so the overall depth is not in any way critical provided, of course, there is sufficient depth for the fogger to float correctly.

When left for any length of time, the gas pressure inside the  electrolyser will drop because the nature of the hydroxy gas alters. This means that there will not be sufficient hydroxy gas available to start the engine and no more gas will be generated until the engine drives the generator. So, to deal with this situation, a lead-acid car
battery is included so that it can be switched in to replace the  generator for a brief period before the engine is started. That inclusion gives this overall arrangement:

This arrangement is perfectly capable of running a standard generator  without the use of any fossil fuel. It should be noted that while no fossil fuel needs to be bought to run this generator system, the electrical output is far from free and is actually quite expensive as there is the purchase cost of the generator, the electrolyser and the minor additional equipment. Also, generators have a definite working life and so will have to be refurbished or replaced. It might also be remarked that if a generator of this type is going to be used in an urban environment, then the addition of sound-reducing baffles and housing would be very desirable.

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Saturday, February 25, 2012



US Patent 5,625,241 29th April 1997 Inventor: Harold E. Ewing et al. This is a modified excerpt of the patent which shows a compact, self-powered, combined permanent magnet motor and electrical generator. There is some additional information at the end of the patent.

A permanent magnet generator or motor having stationary coils positioned in a circle, or a rotor on which are
mounted permanent magnets grouped in sectors and positioned to move adjacent to the coils, and a carousel
carrying corresponding groups of permanent magnets through the centres of the coils, the carousel moves with
the rotor by virtue of its being magnetically coupled to it.

Ewing, Harold E. (Chandler, AZ, US)
Chapman, Russell R. (Mesa, AZ, US)
Porter, David R. (Mesa, AZ, US)
Energy Research Corporation (Mesa, AZ)
US Patent References:
3610974 Oct, 1971 Kenyon 310/49.
4547713 Oct, 1985 Langley et al. 318/254.
5117142 May, 1992 Von Zweygbergk 310/156.
5289072 Feb, 1994 Lange 310/266.
5293093 Mar, 1994 Warner 310/254.
5304883 Apr, 1994 Denk 310/180.


        There are numerous applications for small electric generators in ratings of a few kilowatts or less. Examples include electric power sources for emergency lighting in commercial and residential buildings, power sources for remote locations such as mountain cabins, and portable power sources for motor homes, pleasure boats, etc. In all of these applications, system reliability is a primary concern. Because the power system is likely to sit idle for long periods of time without the benefit of periodic maintenance, and because the owner-operator is often inexperienced in the maintenance and operation of such equipment, the desired level of reliability can only be achieved through system simplicity and the elimination of such components as batteries or other secondary power sources which are commonly employed for generator field excitation.

       Another important feature for such generating equipment is miniaturization particularly in the case of portable equipment. It is important to be able to produce the required level of power in a relatively small generator. Both of these requirements are addressed in the present invention through a novel adaptation of the permanent magnet generator or magneto in a design that lends itself to high frequency operation as a means for maximizing power output per unit volume. 


       Permanent magnet generators or magnetos have been employed widely for many years. Early applications of such generators include the supply of electric current for spark plugs in automobiles and airplanes. Early
telephones used magnetos to obtain electrical energy for ringing. The Model T Ford automobile also used
magnetos to power its electric lights. The present invention differs from prior art magnetos in terms of its novel physical structure in which a multiplicity of permanent magnets and electrical windings are arranged in a fashion which permits high-speed/high-frequency operation as a means for meeting the miniaturization requirement. In addition, the design is enhanced through the use of a rotating carousel which carries a multiplicity of field source magnets through the centres of the stationary electric windings in which the generated voltage is thereby induced.


      In accordance with the invention claimed, an improved permanent magnet electric generator is provided with a capability for delivering a relatively high level of output power from a small and compact structure. The
incorporation of a rotating carousel for the transport of the primary field magnets through the electrical windings in which induction occurs enhances field strength in the locations critical to generation. It is, therefore, one object of this invention to provide an improved permanent magnet generator or magneto for the generation of electrical power. Another object of this invention is to provide in such a generator a relatively high level of electrical power from a small and compact structure. A further object of this invention is to achieve such a high level of electrical power by virtue of the high rotational speed and high frequency operation of which the generator of the invention is capable.
      A further object of this invention is to provide such a high frequency capability through the use of a novel field structure in which the primary permanent magnets are carried through the centres of the induction windings of the generator by a rotating carousel.
      A still further object of this invention is to provide a means for driving the rotating carousel without the aid of mechanical coupling but rather by virtue of magnetic coupling between other mechanically driven magnets and those mounted on the carousel.
      A still further object of this invention is to provide an enhanced capability for high speed/high frequency operation through the use of an air bearing as a support for the rotating carousel.
        Yet another object of this invention is to provide in such an improved generator a sufficiently high magnetic field density in the locations critical to voltage generation without resort to the use of laminations or other media to channel the magnetic field.
       Further objects an advantages of the invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds and the features of novelty which characterize the invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification.


The present invention may be more readily described by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig.1 is a simplified perspective view of the carousel electric generator of the invention;

Fig.2 is a cross-sectional view of Fig.1 taken along line 2--2;

Fig.3 is a cross-sectional view of the generator of Fig.1 and Fig.2 taken along line 3--3 of Fig.2;

Fig.4 is a cross-sectional view of Fig.3 taken along line 4--4;

Fig.5 is a partial perspective view showing the orientation of a group of permanent magnets within a twenty
degree sector of the generator of the invention as viewed in the direction of arrow 5 of Fig.3;

Fig.6 is an illustration of the physical arrangement of electrical windings and permanent magnets within the
generator of the invention as viewed in the direction of arrow 6 in Fig.1;

Fig.7 is a wave form showing flux linkages for a given winding as a function of rotational position of the winding
relative to the permanent magnets;

Fig.8 is a schematic diagram showing the proper connection of the generator windings for a high current low
voltage configuration of the generator;

Fig.9 is a schematic diagram showing a series connection of generator coils for a low current, high voltage

Fig.10 is a schematic diagram showing a series/parallel connection of generator windings for intermediate current and voltage operation;

Fig.11 is a perspective presentation of a modified carousel magnet configuration employed in a second
embodiment of the invention;

Fig.12A and Fig.12B show upper and lower views of the carousel magnets of Fig.11;

Fig.13 is a cross-sectional view of the modified magnet configuration of Fig.11 taken along line 13--13 with other features of the modified carousel structure also shown;

Fig.14 is a modification of the carousel structure shown in Figs. 1-13 wherein a fourth carousel magnet is
positioned at each station; and

Fig.15 illustrates the use of the claimed device as a pulsed direct current power source.


     Referring more particularly to the drawings by characters of reference, Fig.1 shows the external proportions of a carousel electric generator 10 of the invention. As shown in Fig.1, generator 10 is enclosed by a housing 11 with mounting feet 12 suitable for securing the generator to a flat surface 13. The surface 13 is preferably horizontal, as shown in Fig.1. Housing 11 has the proportions of a short cylinder. A drive shaft 14 extends axially from housing 11 through a bearing 15. The electrical output of the generator is brought out through a cable 16.

    The cross-sectional view of Fig.2 shows the active elements incorporated in one twenty degree sector of the
stator and in one twenty degree sector of the rotor. In the first implementation of the invention, there are eighteen identical stator sectors, each incorporating a winding or coil 17 wound about a rectangular coil frame or bobbin. Coil 17 is held by a stator frame 18 which may also serve as an outer wall of frame 11.
The rotor is also divided into eighteen sectors, nine of which incorporate three permanent magnets each,
including an inboard rotor magnet 19, an upper rotor magnet 21 and a lower rotor magnet 22. All three of these magnets have their south poles facing coil 17, and all three are mounted directly on rotor frame 23 which is secured directly to drive shaft 14. The other nine sectors of the rotor are empty, i.e. they are not populated with magnets. The unpopulated sectors are alternated with the populated sectors so that adjacent populated sectors are separated by an unpopulated sector as shown in Fig.3 and Fig.6. With reference again to Fig.2, generator 10 also incorporates a carousel 24. The carousel comprises nine pairs of carousel magnets 25 clamped between upper and lower retainer rings 26 and 27, respectively. The lower retainer ring 27 rests inside an air bearing channel 28 which is secured to stator 18 inside the bobbin of coil 17. Air passages (not shown) admit air into the space between the lower surface of ring 27 and the upper or inside surface of channel 28. This arrangement comprises an air bearing which permits carousel 24 to rotate freely within the coils 17 about rotational axis 29 of rotor frame 23. Carousel 24 is also divided into 18 twenty-degree sectors, including nine populated sectors interspersed with nine unpopulated sectors in an alternating sequence. Each of the nine populated sectors incorporates a pair of carousel magnets as described in the preceding paragraph.

The geometrical relationship between the rotor magnets, the carousel magnets and the coils, is further clarified by Fig.3, Fig.4 and Fig.5. In each of the three figures, the centre of each populated rotor sector is shown aligned with the centre of a coil 17. Each populated carousel sector, which is magnetically locked into position with a populated rotor sector, is thus also aligned with a coil 17.
      In an early implementation of the invention, the dimensions and spacings of the rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22 and carousel magnets, 25A and 25B of carousel magnet pairs 25 were as shown in Fig.5. Each of the rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22 measured one inch by two inches by one-half inch with north and south poles at opposite one-inch by two-inch faces. Each of the carousel magnets 25A and 25B measured two inches by two inches by one-half inch with north and south poles at opposite two-inch by two-inch faces. The magnets were obtained from Magnet Sales and Manufacturing, Culver City, Calif. The carousel magnets were part No.35NE2812832; the rotor magnets were custom parts of equivalent strength (MMF) but half the cross section of the carousel magnets.
       Coil supports and other stationary members located within magnetic field patterns are fabricated from Delrin or Teflon plastic or equivalent materials. The use of aluminum or other metals introduce eddy current losses and in some cases excessive friction.
     As shown in Fig.5, carousel magnets 25A and 25B stand on edge, parallel with each other, their north poles facing each other, and spaced one inch apart. When viewed from directly above the carousel magnets, the space between the two magnets 25A and 25B appears as a one-inch by two-inch rectangle. When the carousel magnet pair 25 is perfectly locked into position magnetically, upper rotor magnet 21 is directly above this one-inch by two-inch rectangle, lower rotor magnet 22 is directly below it, and their one-inch by two-inch faces are directly aligned with it, the south poles of the two magnets 21 and 22 facing each other.
In like manner, when viewed from the axis of rotation of generator 10, the space between carousel magnets 25A and 25B again appears as a one-inch by two-inch rectangle, and this rectangle is aligned with the one-inch by two-inch face of magnet 19, the south pole of magnet 19 facing the carousel magnet pair 25. Rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22 are positioned as near as possible to carousel magnets 25A and 25B while still
allowing passage for coil 17 over and around the carousel magnets and through the space between the carousel magnets and the rotor magnets.
      In an electric generator, the voltage induced in the generator windings is proportional to the product of the number of turns in the winding and the rate of change of flux linkages that is produced as the winding is rotated through the magnetic field. An examination of magnetic field patterns is therefore essential to an understanding of generator operation.
      In generator 10, magnetic flux emanating from the north poles of carousel magnets 25A and 25B pass through the rotor magnets and then return to the south poles of the carousel magnets. The total flux field is thus driven by the combined MMF (magneto motive force) of the carousel and field magnets while the flux patterns are determined by the orientation of the rotor and carousel magnets.
     The flux pattern between carousel magnets 25A and 25B and the upper and lower rotor magnets 21 and 22 is illustrated in Fig.4. Magnetic flux lines 31 from the north pole of carousel magnet 25A extend to the south pole of upper rotor magnet 21, pass through magnet 21 and return as lines 31' to the south pole of magnet 25A. Lines 33, also from the north pole of magnet 25A extend to the south pole of lower rotor magnet 22, pass through magnet 22 and return to the south pole of magnet 25A as lines 33'. Similarly, lines 32 and 34 from the north pole of magnet 25B pass through magnets 21 and 22, respectively, and return as lines 32' and 34' to the south pole of magnet 25B. Flux linkages produced in coil 17 by lines emanating from carousel magnet 25A are of opposite sense from those emanating from carousel magnet 25B. Because induced voltage is a function of the rate of change in net flux linkages, it is important to recognize this difference in sense.
      Fig.6 shows a similar flux pattern for flux between carousel magnets 25A and 25B and inboard rotor magnet 19. Again the lines emanating from carousel magnet 25A and passing through rotor magnet 19 produce flux linkages in coil 17 that are opposite in sense from those produced by lines from magnet 25B. The arrangement of the carousel magnets with the north poles facing each other tends to confine and channel the
flux into the desired path. This arrangement replaces the function of magnetic yokes or laminations of more
conventional generators. The flux linkages produced by magnets 25A and 25B are opposite in sense regardless of the rotational position of coil 17 including the case where coil 17 is aligned with the carousel and rotor magnets as well as for the same coils when they are aligned with an unpopulated rotor sector.
      Taking into account the flux patterns of Fig.4 and Fig.6 and recognizing the opposing sense conditions just
described, net flux linkages for a given coil 17 are deduced as shown in Fig.7.
      In Fig.7, net flux linkages (coil-turns x lines) are plotted as a function of coil position in degrees. Coil position is here defined as the position of the centreline 35 of coil 17 relative to the angular scale shown in degrees in Fig.6. (Note that the coil is stationary and the scale is fixed to the rotor. As the rotor turns in a clockwise direction, the relative position of coil 17 progresses from zero to ten to twenty degrees etc.).
     At a relative coil position of ten degrees, the coil is centred between magnets 25A and 25B. Assuming
symmetrical flux patterns for the two magnets, the flux linkages from one magnet exactly cancel the flux linkages from the other so that net flux linkages are zero. As the relative coil position moves to the right, linkages from magnet 25A decrease and those from magnet 25B increase so that net flux linkages build up from zero and passes through a maximum negative value at some point between ten and twenty degrees. After reaching the negative maximum, flux linkages decrease, passing through zero at 30 degrees (where coil 17 is at the centre of an unpopulated rotor sector) and then rising to a positive maximum at some point just beyond 60 degrees. This cyclic variation repeats as the coil is subjected successively to fields from populated and unpopulated rotor sectors.
    As the rotor is driven rotationally, net flux linkages for all eighteen coils are altered at a rate that is determined by the flux pattern just described in combination with the rotational velocity of the rotor. Instantaneous voltage induced in coil 17 is a function of the slope of the curve shown in Fig.7 and rotor velocity, and voltage polarity changes as the slope of the curve alternates between positive and negative.
It is important to note here that a coil positioned at ten degrees is exposed to a negative slope while the adjacent  coil is exposed to a positive slope. The polarities of the voltages induced in the two adjacent coils are therefore opposite. For series or parallel connections of odd and even-numbered coils, this polarity discrepancy can be corrected by installing the odd and even numbered coils oppositely (odds rotated end for end relative to evens) or by reversing start and finish connections of odd relative to even numbered coils. Either of these measures will render all coil voltages additive as needed for series or parallel connections. Unless the field patterns for populated and unpopulated sectors are very nearly symmetrical, however, the voltages induced in odd and even numbered coils will have different waveforms. This difference will not be corrected by the coil reversals or reverse connections discussed in the previous paragraph. Unless the voltage waveforms are very nearly the same, circulating currents will flow between even and odd-numbered coils. These circulating currents will reduce generator efficiency

       To prevent such circulating currents and the attendant loss in operating efficiency for non symmetrical field
patterns and unmatched voltage waveforms, the series-parallel connections of Fig.8 may be employed in a high current, low-voltage configuration of the generator. If the eighteen coils are numbered in sequence from one to
eighteen according to position about the stator, all even-numbered coils are connected in parallel, all odd numbered coils are connected in parallel, and the two parallel coil groups are connected in series as shown with reversed polarity for one group so that voltages will be in phase relative to output cable 16.
      For a low-current, high voltage configuration, the series connection of all coils may be employed as shown in Fig.9. In this case, it is only necessary to correct the polarity difference between even and odd numbered coils. As mentioned earlier, this can be accomplished by means of opposite start and finish connections for odd and even coils or by installing alternate coils reversed, end for end.

     For intermediate current and voltage configurations, various series-parallel connections may be employed. Fig.10, for example, shows three groups of six coils each connected in series. Circulating currents will be avoided so long as even-numbered coils are not connected in parallel with odd-numbered coils. Parallel connection of series-connected odd/even pairs as shown is permissible because the waveforms of the series pairs should be very neatly matched.

      In another embodiment of the invention, the two large (two-inch by two-inch) carousel magnets are replaced by three smaller magnets as shown in Fig.11, Fig.12 and Fig.13. The three carousel magnets comprise an inboard carousel magnet 39, an upper carousel magnet 41 and a lower carousel magnet 42 arranged in a U-shaped configuration that matches the U-shaped configuration of the rotor magnets 19, 21 and 22. As in the case of the first embodiment, the rotor and carousel magnets are present only in alternate sectors of the generator.
The ends of the carousel magnets are beveled to permit a more compact arrangement of the three magnets. As
shown in Fig.12, each magnet measures one inch by two inches by one half inch thick. The south pole occupies
the bevelled one-inch by two-inch face and the north pole is at the opposite face.
        The modified carousel structure 24' as shown in Fig.13 comprises an upper carousel bearing plate 43, a lower carousel bearing plate 44, an outer cylindrical wall 45 and an inner cylindrical wall 46. The upper and lower bearing plates 43 and 44 mate with the upper and lower bearing members 47 and 48, respectively, which are stationary and secured inside the forms of the coils 17. Bearing plates 43 and 44 are shaped to provide air channels 49 which serve as air bearings for rotational support of the carousel 24'. The bearing plates are also slotted to receive the upper and lower edges 51 of cylindrical walls 45 and 46. The modified carousel structure 24' offers a number of advantages over the first embodiment. The matched magnet configuration of the carousel and the rotor provides tighter and more secure coupling between the carousel and the rotor. The smaller carousel magnets also provide a significant reduction in carousel weight. This was found beneficial relative to the smooth and efficient rotational support of the carousel.
      The modification of the carousel structure as described in the foregoing paragraphs can be taken one step further with the addition of a fourth carousel magnet 52 at each station as shown in Fig.14. The four carousel magnets 39, 41, 42 and 52 now form a square frame with each of the magnet faces (north poles) facing a corresponding inside face of the coil 17. Carousel magnets for this modification may again be as shown in Fig.12. An additional rotor magnet 53 may also be added as shown, in alignment with carousel magnet 52. These additional modifications further enhance the field pattern and the degree of coupling between the rotor and the carousel. The carousel electric generator of the invention is particularly well suited to high speed, high frequency operation where the high speed compensates for lower flux densities than might be achieved with a magnetic medium for routing the field through the generator coils. For many applications, such as emergency lighting, the high frequency is also advantageous. Fluorescent lighting, for example, is more efficient in terms of lumens per watt and the ballasts are smaller at high frequencies.
      While the present invention has been directed toward the provision of a compact generator for specialised
generator applications, it is also possible to operate the device as a motor by applying an appropriate alternating voltage source to cable 16 and coupling drive shaft 14 to a load.
          It is also possible to operate the device of the invention as a motor using a pulsed direct-current power source. A control system 55 for providing such operation is illustrated in Fig.15. Incorporated in the control system 55 are a rotor position sensor S, a programmable logic controller 56, a power control circuit 57 and a potentiometer P. Based on signals received from sensor S, controller 56 determines the appropriate timing for coil excitation to assure maximum torque and smooth operation. This entails the determination of the optimum positions of the rotor and the carousel at the initiation and at the termination of coil excitation. For smooth operation and maximum torque, the force developed by the interacting fields of the magnets and the excited coils should be unidirectional to the maximum possible extent. Typically, the coil is excited for only 17.5 degrees or less during each 40 degrees of rotor rotation. The output signal 58 of controller 56 is a binary signal (high or low) that is interpreted as an ON and OFF command for coil excitation.
           The power control circuit incorporates a solid state switch in the form of a power transistor or a MOSFET. It responds to the control signal 58 by turning the solid state switch ON and OFF to initiate and terminate coil excitation. Instantaneous voltage amplitude supplied to the coils during excitation is controlled by means of potentiometer P. Motor speed and torque are thus responsive to potentiometer adjustments.
The device is also adaptable for operation as a motor using a commutator and brushes for control of coil
excitation. In this case, the commutator and brushes replace the programmable logic controller and the power
control circuit as the means for providing pulsed DC excitation. This approach is less flexible but perhaps more
efficient than the programmable control system described earlier. It will now be recognised that a novel and useful generator has been provided in accordance with the stated objects of the invention, and while but a few embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or from the scope of the appended claims.

Additional Info
The “carousel” is formed from two circular plastic channels like this:

These channels are placed, one below and one above, nine pairs of carousel magnets. Each carousel magnet sits in the lower channel:

And these magnets are secured as a unit by an identical plastic channel inverted and placed on top of the magnet
And this ring assembly of magnets spins inside the wire coils used to generate the electrical output. The ring
spins inside the coils because the nine pairs of magnets in the ring, lock in place opposite the matching nine pairs of magnets in the rotor and the magnetic force and rotor rotation causes the ring to spin inside the coils.